Trademark Disclaimers as a Part of a USPTO Trademark Registration

Applications for USPTO trademarks often contain unregisterable words, other matter or components that are unregisterable because they descriptive, merely descriptive, deceptively descriptive, geographically descriptive, generic, a surname or meeting other grounds for refusal. Often the unregisterable matter is the common name for the goods or services (generic term) or a laudatory term.

Some disclaimer to registration is filed in about 19.6 percent of  USPTO applications and registrations according to a 2013 USPTO study.  (Graham, Stuart J. H., Hancock, Galen, Marco, Alan C. and Myers, Amanda F., The USPTO Trademark Case Files Dataset: Descriptions, Lessons, and Insights (January 31, 2013))

The Trademark Act provides for a way for trademarks containing unregisterable matter to be registered on the Principal Register or Supplemental Register (In re Carolyn’s Candies, Inc., 206 USPQ 356, 360 (TTAB 1980)) by requiring that the unregisterable part of the mark be disclaimed. Every rule has exceptions, if the unregisterable part of the registerable part together create a “unitary” mark, the unregisterable part does not have to be disclaimed. A mark or portion of a mark is considered “unitary” when it creates a commercial impression separate and apart from any unregistrable component (TMEP 1213.05).

There are many rules about disclaimers and how they are used. See TMEP 1213 Disclaimer of Elements in Marks for more information.


Trademark Disclaimers and Unitary Marks

The Trademark Act provides for a way for trademarks containing unregisterable matter to be registered on the Principal Register or Supplemental Register (In re Carolyn’s Candies, Inc., 206 USPQ 356, 360 (TTAB 1980)) by requiring that the unregisterable part of the mark be disclaimed. Every rule has exceptions, if the unregisterable part and the registerable part together create a “unitary” mark, the otherwise unregisterable part does not have to be disclaimed. A mark or portion of a mark is considered “unitary” when it creates a commercial impression separate and apart from any unregistrable component (TMEP 1213.05).

Specific categories of unitary matter has emerged through case law and USPTO policy, such as compound word marks, telescoped words, hyphenated terms, slogans, double entendre, incongruity, and visual display of the mark conveying a unitary whole. See TMEP 1213 Disclaimer of Elements in Marks for more information or call us at 1-651-500-7590. Unitary mark claiming can also eliminate problems with merely-desciptive refusals in some cases.


How Common are Problems With Disclaimers?

Between April 16, 2008 and October 16, 2010, approximately 29% of first Office actions (not including examiner’s amendments), 6% of final Office actions, and 5.5% of appeals to the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board contained a disclaimer requirement. (From uspto.gov/trademarks/DisclaimerPaper.doc)


Standard Disclaimer Form

The standardized disclaimer text is as follows:

No claim is made to the exclusive right to use ____________, apart from the mark as shown.

Where non-adjacent components of a mark, or adjacent components that do not form a grammatically or otherwise unitary expression must be disclaimed, the following format is suggested:

No claim is made to the exclusive right to use ________ or ________, apart from the mark as shown.

The standard wording required for a design element is:

No claim is made to the exclusive right to use the design of “____” apart from the mark as shown.

For non-Latin characters, the following format is suggested:

No claim is made to the exclusive right to use the non-Latin characters that transliterate to “[specify Latin character transliteration]” apart from the mark as shown.  


Refusal to Register Because of Failure to Disclaim

 Registration may be refused if an applicant does not comply with a requirement for a disclaimer made by the examining attorney. See In re Slokevage, 441 F.3d 957, 78 USPQ2d 1395 (Fed. Cir. 2006); In re Stereotaxis Inc., 429 F.3d 1039, 77 USPQ2d 1087 (Fed. Cir. 2005); In re Omaha Nat’l Corp., 819 F.2d 1117, 2 USPQ2d 1859 (Fed. Cir. 1987); In re Richardson Ink Co., 511 F.2d 559, 185 USPQ 46 (C.C.P.A. 1975); In re National Presto Industries, Inc., 197 USPQ 188 (TTAB 1977); In re Pendleton Tool Industries, Inc., 157 USPQ 114 (TTAB 1968). If an applicant fails to comply with the examining attorney’s requirement for a disclaimer, the examining attorney should make the requirement final if the application is otherwise in condition for a final action. TMEP 1213.01(b) Refusal to Register Because of Failure to Disclaim


Examples of Trademark Disclaimers Required/Not Required by the USPTO

Mark

TTAB Decision or Case

The generic top-level domain (TLD) “.com” merely indicates an Internet address for use by commercial, for-profit organizations and, in general, adds no source identifying significance and must be disclaimed unless it is part of a unitary expression.

In re Oppedahl & Larsen LLP, 373 F.3d 1171, 1175-76, 71 USPQ2d 1370, 1373-74 (Fed. Cir. 2004); In re Hotels.com, L.P., 87 USPQ2d 1100, 1105 (TTAB 2008); see  TMEP §§1209.03(m).

BEER 1 with "BEER" disclaimer

Anheuser-Busch, Inc. v. Kelly J. Holt (TTAB 2009)

Mark comprising stylized lettering of BALSAM, with disclaimer of “BALSAM,” found registrable on Supplemental Register for hair conditioner and hair shampoo.

In re Wella Corp., 565 F.2d 143, 196 USPQ 7 (C.C.P.A. 1977)

Thistle design found synonymous to the word “thistle,” which is used in a descriptive sense to designate a class of sailboats. No claim is made to the exclusive right to use the design of “thistle” apart from the mark as shown.

Thistle Class Ass’n v. Douglass & McLeod, Inc., 198 USPQ 504 (TTAB 1978)

Words or abbreviations in a trade name designating the legal character of an entity (e.g., Corporation, Corp., Co., Inc., Ltd., etc.) must be disclaimed because an entity designation has no source-indicating capacity.

In re Piano Factory Group, Inc., 85 USPQ2d 1522 (TTAB 2006)

The familial business structure of an entity (e.g., “& Sons” or “Bros.”) must be disclaimed because an entity designation has no source-indicating capacity.

In re Piano Factory Group, Inc., 85 USPQ2d 1522 (TTAB 2006)

PRESS as applied to a printing or publishing establishment, “is in the nature of a generic entity designation which is incapable of serving a source-indicating function.”

In re Taylor & Francis [Publishers] Inc., 55 USPQ2d 1213, 1215 (TTAB 2000)

PAINT PRODUCTS CO. is no more registrable for goods emanating from a company that sells paint products than it would be as a service mark for the retail paint store services offered by such a company.

In re The Paint Products Co., 8 USPQ2d 1863, 1866 (TTAB 1988)

DESIGNERS PLUS+ for sweaters held unitary; thus, no disclaimer of “DESIGNERS” deemed necessary.

In re Hampshire-Designers, Inc., 199 USPQ 383 (TTAB 1978)

AMERICA’S FRESHEST ICE CREAM for flavored ices, etc., held incapable of distinguishing applicant’s goods and unregistrable on the Supplemental Register.

In re Carvel Corp., 223 USPQ 65 (TTAB 1984)

WHY PAY MORE! held to be an unregistrable common commercial phrase.

In re Wakefern Food Corp., 222 USPQ 76 (TTAB 1984)

GALA ROUGE is NOT a unitary mark, such that the admittedly descriptive word ROUGE need be disclaimed. Purchasers encountering GALA ROUGE, as applied to wine, will view GALA as the brand name, and ROUGE as the color or type of wine.

In re Brown-Forman Corporation (TTAB 2006)

SNAP ON 3000 AIRMATIC (in standard character form) for various items of furniture hardware and fittings. The requirement for a disclaimer of “SNAP ON 3000” reversed and “SNAP ON and 3000” were required to be disclaimed.

In re Grass GmbH (TTAB 2006)

ALPHA ANALYTICS directly and immediately informs the investor/purchaser of applicant’s investment advisory and mutual fund investment services that a salient feature or characteristic of those services is that applicant, in determining the desirability of a potential investment for the investor/purchaser and in order to maximize the investor/purchaser’s return on investment, performs “analytics” of the “alpha” of the potential investment.

In re Alpha Analytics Investment Group, LLC (TTAB 2002)


Not Just Patents ® Legal Services provides a very economical package for USPTO (or international) Trademark Registration and provides domestic representation for foreign applicants. See What to Expect from a Not Just Patents ® Trademark Attorney for more information on what steps we take to protect your rights and help you develop a strong trademark.


We suggest a Not Just Patents Five-Step Verification as part of a Plan for A Successful Trademark:

To Verify a potential trademark is strong, available to use, and ready to register, the process should be more than a direct hit federal search. To maximize the commercial strength and minimize the weaknesses of a trademark, we start with these steps:

1) Verify Inherent Strength,

2) Verify Right to Use,

3) Verify Right to Register,

 4) Verify the potential mark (as currently used) Functions As A Mark, and

5) Verify that the Goods and Services ID is both the correct and the maximum claim that are user can make and verify that the Goods and Services ID meets USPTO requirements before filing.

*We don’t stop here but this is a good start!



We can provide a quick and economical Response to Office Action (ROA). See Why Should I Have A Trademark Attorney Answer My Office Action if you have already applied and been refused.If someone is using your trademark in a way that harms you, we may be able to stop them through an opposition or a cancellation proceeding. If you are being opposed or are threatened with cancellation, we may be able to help as well. Timing is very important for a bunch of reasons: Opposition times are very short, times to answer Petitions to Cancel are only 40 days from when the petitions are filed, times to answer Oppositions can be very short, and sitting on your rights in general can cause problems. Don’t delay calling. We can help.


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For more information from Not Just Patents, see our other sites:      

Steps to a Patent    How to Patent An Invention

Should I Get A Trademark or Patent?

Trademark e Search    Strong Trademark     Enforcing Trade Names

Common Law Trademarks  Trademark Goodwill   Abandoned Trademarks

Patentability Evaluation

Chart of Patent vs. Trade Secret

Patent or Trademark Assignments

Trademark Disclaimers   Trademark Dilution     TSDR Status Descriptors

Oppose or Cancel? Examples of Disclaimers  Business Name Cease and Desist

Sample Patent, Trademark & Copyright Inventory Forms

Verify a Trademark  Be First To File    How to Trademark Search

Are You a Content Provider-How to Pick an ID  Specimens: webpages

How to Keep A Trade Secret

State & Federal Trade Secret Laws

Using Slogans (Taglines), Model Numbers as Trademarks

Which format? When Should I  Use Standard Characters?

Shop Rights  What is a Small or Micro Entity?

Patent Drawings

Opposition Pleadings    UDRP Elements    

Oppositions-The Underdog

How To Answer A Trademark Cease and Desist Letter

Converting Provisional to Nonprovisional Patent Application (or claiming benefit of)

Trademark Refusals    Does not Function as a Mark Refusals

How to Respond to Office Actions

What is a Compact Patent Prosecution?

Acceptable Specimen       Supplemental Register   $199 Statement of Use

How To Show Acquired Distinctiveness Under 2(f)

Patent search-New invention

Patent Search-Non-Obvious

Trademark Attorney for Overcoming Office Actions Functional Trademarks   How to Trademark     

What Does ‘Use in Commerce’ Mean?    

Grounds for Opposition & Cancellation     Cease and Desist Letter

Trademark Incontestability  TTAB Manual (TBMP)

Valid/Invalid Use of Trademarks     Trademark Searching

TTAB/TBMP Discovery Conferences & Stipulations

TBMP 113 Service of TTAB Documents  TBMP 309 Standing

Examples and General Rules for Likelihood of Confusion

USPTO Search Method for Likelihood of Confusion

Examples of Refusals for Likelihood of Confusion   DuPont Factors

What are Dead or Abandoned Trademarks?

 Can I Use An Abandoned Trademark?

Color as Trade Dress  3D Marks as Trade Dress  

Can I Abandon a Trademark During An Opposition?

Differences between TEAS and TEAS plus  

How do I Know If Someone Has Filed for An Extension of Time to Oppose?

Ornamental Refusal  Standard TTAB Protective Order

SCAM Letters Surname Refusal


What Does Published for Opposition Mean?

What to Discuss in the Discovery Conference

Descriptive Trademarks Trademark2e.com  

Likelihood of Confusion 2d

Acquired Distinctiveness  2(f) or 2(f) in part

Merely Descriptive Trademarks  

Merely Descriptive Refusals

ID of Goods and Services see also Headings (list) of International Trademark Classes

Register a Trademark-Step by Step  

Protect Business Goodwill Extension of Time to Oppose

Geographically Descriptive or Deceptive

Change of Address with the TTAB using ESTTA

Likelihood of confusion-Circuit Court tests

Pseudo Marks    How to Reply to Cease and Desist Letter

Not Just Patents Often Represents the Underdog

 Overcome Merely Descriptive Refusal   Overcome Likelihood Confusion

Protecting Trademark Rights (Common Law)

Steps in a Trademark Opposition Process   

Section 2(d) Refusals   FilingforTrademark.com

Zombie Trademark  

What is the Difference between Principal & Supplemental Register?

Typical Brand Name Refusals  What is a Family of Marks? What If Someone Files An Opposition Against My Trademark?

How to Respond Office Actions  

DIY Overcoming Descriptive Refusals

Trademark Steps Trademark Registration Answers TESS  

Trademark Searching Using TESS  Trademark Search Tips

Trademark Clearance Search   DIY Trademark Strategies

Published for Opposition     What is Discoverable in a TTAB Proceeding?

Counterclaims and Affirmative Defenses


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